Protocole de kyoto suisse proti stárnutí. Sbornik_konference


Dítě jako oběť a pachatel Socially pathological phenomena in the virtual world. Chtěli bychom Vám v něm nabídnout zajímavé a inspirativní statě z oblasti výzkumu realizovaného nejen na Bankovním institutu vysoké škole, ale i na jiných institucích terciárního vzdělávání jak v České republice, tak i v zahraničí.

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Ve snaze zvýšit prestiž, a tím i okruh potenciálních přispěvatelů, byla v letošním roce realizátory tohoto periodika podaná žádost o zařazení na Seznam recenzovaných neimpaktovaných periodik v České republice a též do světové databáze SCOPUS.

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Между ними расхаживали двое подростков. - Дети реальны, - проговорил Орел.

This is next step on a long way to make our journal recognized professional periodical. Dear readers, you will always have the significant word.

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We are inclined to open discussion, your ideas, recommendations and advice. We welcome the new topics and new authors of high-quality papers. Tato potřeba vyvstává nejen z dosažené úrovně globalizace a její negativních ekonomických, sociálních, ekologických a dalších důsledků.

Současná hloubka i šíře celosvětové hospodářské a finanční krize rovněž naznačuje, že další vývoj globální ekonomiky nemusí nutně přinést dominanci ekonomického růstu a jeho sledování pomocí tradičních ukazatelů, jako zachování jednoho z hlavních paradigmat dosavadní ekonomické teorie.

Much more than documents.

Změna metodiky analýzy aktuálního vývoje světové ekonomiky směrem k interdisciplinaritě a holistickému přístupu, které jsou v poslední době používány stále víc a obšírněji, taky potvrzuje navrhovanou hypotézu o nezbytnosti změny paradigmatu. Klíčová slova: teorie globální ekonomiky, změny paradigmatu ekonomické teorie a politiky, metodologie vědeckého zkoumání, ekonomický růst ABSTRACT The paper analyzes the need for a new approach to research methodology of global economy and a paradigm shift in its economic theory, as well as in practices of economic policies of governments and international institutions.

This need proaktivní recenze proti stárnutí not only from the achieved level of globalization and its negative economic, social, environmental and others consequences. Current global economic and financial crisis, its depth and scope also suggest that further development of the global economy does not necessarily bring the dominance of economic growth and its monitoring using the traditional indicators as one of the main paradigms of present economic theory.

Change in methodology analyzing current developments of the world economy, towards an interdisciplinarity and holistic approach, which is used more and more protocole de kyoto suisse proti stárnutí and recently, confirms presented hypothesis of necessity of this paradigm shift too. The financial crisis has deeply influenced most countries of the world and showed the link across the financial economy including government sectorthe real economy and their considerable interaction at the macro and micro-economical level.

Many professionals and experts in economic theory and practice were taken by surprise with this development; the depth, width of its range. They were neither ready nor able to seek and find the corresponding complex theoretical and practical solutions, not only at national but also at international level.

The lack of theoretical basis is transferred to the helplessness politicians in search of adequate economic and political models of solution; what financial protocole de kyoto suisse proti stárnutí reflect in the form of high volatility, increased sensitivity to potential risks, which has a major impact on the further deepening of the crisis and looping paths representing possible ways out of the crisis.

The depth of the problem, the inability to find new ways out of this situation brings with it ever more intense need to search for substantial changes in approaches to economic theory, the problem analysis and interpretation of its results and their application to the needs of the overall political practice management structures of today s world the global economy.

Each of these components of economic theory and practice requires more intensive analysis, with regard to the scope of this article, however, is possible only to outline some guidelines. One of the key concepts in this context becomes a question of formulating a new paradigm of economic science.

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Parochial notion of a paradigm shift in the theory of science appeared already 50 years ago, was brought by scientific revolution theory describing the pace of changes in scientific disciplines. The father of this theory of scientific paradigm, T.

protocole de kyoto suisse proti stárnutí

Kuhnunderstands it as a summary of the basic hypotheses, assumptions and ideas of a group of scientists, which is closely linked to methodological rules solutions, intuitive evaluation examining attitudes and problems.

This model understands the paradigm shift of science as the central engine of the scientific revolution, defined as the problem of changed approach, which is based on the anomalies that contradict existing and fixed way of understanding phenomena and their explanations.

Октопаук вошел в столовую, и цветовые полосы побежали вокруг его - Он говорит, что пришел помочь Ричарду с его автоматическим переводчиком, - сказала Элли. - Особенно с блоками, реагирующими на сигналы за пределами видимой области спектра.

Николь спала. и снова плясала в африканских ритмах вокруг костра в Республике Берег Слоновой Кости.

New questions of theory and practice at some point of the marginal accumulation require new ways of asking questions guided by the discipline and new answers to these questions. Transforming scientific paradigm takes the form of so-called scientific protocole de kyoto suisse proti stárnutí in the period up to when the existing paradigm had been exhausted and no more adapted to the search for answers to protocole de kyoto suisse proti stárnutí questions addressing some anomalies both in terms of theory and practice.

If these anomalies accumulate too much, there is a search for a new paradigm, and after completion of this process, the so-called normal science re-occurs. The new paradigm then wins in competition with others, but they are mutually incomparable, as served so different view of the world that cannot be evaluated on the basis of one another. Adoption of the new paradigm is a revolution in world view, which is due to the fact that a paradigm consists of perception and assumption itself is a kind of platform on the basis of which we perceive the world in some different way.

That concept of a paradigm shift of science is very convenient to characterize the current situation of fumbling in economic theory examining global economic development, but also on the overall economic and political practice.

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This state has a very negative impact on the character of the entire world economy development. It is possible, therefore, to believe that the search for finding long-term and fundamental solutions to the current global economic crisis will require some form of the scientific revolution, through alteration of paradigm in the theory exploring the world economy, but maybe even the whole economic theory at the level of macro-and microeconomics. Paradigm shift in exploring the global economy require mainly: a change in the approach to the understanding of the aims, purpose and direction of economic activities of human society on a global scale a change in the level of abstraction used in the analysis, including the setting of internal and external borders of the exploration object global economyits interfaces with other objects and scientific disciplines that examine integration and interdisciplinarity of scientific disciplines and their methods involved in the process of examining change categorical apparatus and methodical instrumentation utilized in the analysis of the examined object a change in the approach to the interpretation of protocole de kyoto suisse proti stárnutí results and their application in practice as a general policy on the macro and the micro level.

Namely, that the management 6 5 of people is based on the so-called human nature, preference and selfish interests of the individual, which lead to the overall benefit of society. This model does not take into account nejúčinnější ošetření vrásek obličeje number of structural as well as social and human factors, and ambitiously enough based on the assumption that human decisions are not exclusively guided by perfect rationality, which maintain the protocole de kyoto suisse proti stárnutí of markets with perfect competition.

The reliability of this as well as other economic models would be irrelevant for the general public, if these theories recipes remain subject only to academic discussions.

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Unfortunately, however, such models of neoclassical or monetarist school of economics and their recommendations had a major influence on the governments. These models were helping them to shape the character of the coming era of globalization characterized by febrile free enterprise promotion, free market liberalization, series of privatization, which in the eighties and 90s of 20th century became the main focus of international economic policy and its liberalization.

These ideas contained in the so-called Washington Consensus from the turn of the 90s years, formed the classical form of globalization policies of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, however were the result of the deepening divide between rich and feuille de boucher suisse anti aging countries.

Among other things, today so much criticized greed and selfishness of speculative banking sector is a typical product of the ideological school and basically fundamental methodological assumption of the neoliberal model.

Discredited economic theories are permanently coming back.

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Australian economist John Quiggin argues that some of these ideas - as a great moderate economic cycles B. Bernanketotal privatization M.

The existence of the and supporting legislation.

Friedmanperfectly rational markets, models of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium, business subsidizing policy providing huge state subsidies to rich layers in accordance with the concept of privatization of profits and socialization of losses or password too big to fail - which nearly destroyed the world economy during the crisis are trying to re-return to life.

In order to achieve the final victory of the zombie economy they destroy the world by spreading the five safest principles of market liberalism.

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John Quiggin, As Nobelist J. Stiglitz reminds, the world economy protocole de kyoto suisse proti stárnutí seen approximately hundred financial crises in the past three decades as liberalisation became dominant feature of economic policy.

Still the leading economists were not able to take lessons of it. One of this crucial lesson Kartičky na léčení stárnutí de kyoto suisse proti stárnutí be, as Stiglitz says, that markets are not stable, efficient, or self-correcting and we are beginning to clearly identify the really big market failures, the big macroeconomic externalities, and the best policy interventions for protocole de kyoto suisse proti stárnutí high growth, greater stability and a better distribution of income Those facts have been proven time and again over the last century and a half Stiglitz, Basic current paradigms of economic theory is based on certain fundamental cornerstones that make their way its axiomatic basis of assumptions i.

One of the key components of traditional paradigms of economic science is a focus on economic growth. Preference and absolute concentration of economic theory and policy prioritizing economic growth is part of an ideology that has enjoyed in the mid 20th century enormous prosperity, its slogan Without growth, there is nothing quite clearly presenting this approach.

Starting assumption contained in the axiom of economic growth in the current economic science is so strong that it distorts all the surrounding and related phenomena. Derrick Jensen marked in the year by Utne Reader magazine as one of the top 50 visionaries of the world says: In order to maintain our standard of living, we have to lie to one another, and especially ourselves. These lies are necessary because without them many deplorable acts were not possible.

The pure focus on economic growth is one of these deformations, because thinking about the context of economic growth in the broadest context, the changed view of the world and its economy.

protocole de kyoto suisse proti stárnutí

Just imagine that a whole generation of economists and politicians has been brought up in the belief of the need for unlimited economic growth, and that only growth stimulated by technology and free market will solve all the problems of the world. They suddenly found themselves in a fundamentally different situation that occurs right now in a time of deep structural crisis and requires a different approach to a search of solution.

With great probability they protocole de kyoto suisse proti stárnutí not be able to protocole de kyoto suisse proti stárnutí a solution outside the classical axiom and beyond area given by it.

It is likely that they will prefer models and arguments based on the need to return to growth, and reject evidence and models that do not conform to this paradigm. And in such a manner an idol of economic growth continues to live on in both the theory and practice of economic policy. Herman E. Daly, The approach to problem solving based on the idea that all current and future problems of the globalized world economy will be able to be overcome only by greater economic growth and further liberalization is naive.

The current global economic system is based on continuous growth in production and consumption.